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What are different types of solar water heating systems?
A variety of systems are available in the market but mostly can be characterised in the following categories:
• Based on collector type: ETC/FPC
• Based on pipe and system pressure: Pressurised/Non pressurised
• Based on system construction material: SS/GI
Evacuated tube collector (ETC) based systems are most common these days and are based on advanced vacuum tube technology. Stainless steel (SS) systems look better and last longer compared to galvanised iron (GI) based systems, however demand 10-15% premium. In dwellings with pressure pumps, pressurised systems need to be installed.
How much litres of hot water will be generated from solar water heating system?
System capacities are defined in litres per day (LPD). This means that a 100 LPD system on an average would be able to deliver 100 litres of water at 60C on a given day.
What happens on a cloudy/rainy day? Do I still get hot water?
The tank is sufficiently insulated to provide hot water for 1-2 days. However in case of emergencies, the system is fitted with an electrical heater to provide hassle free solution even in long spells of rainy/cloudy days.
What are the savings and indicative total payback time of the system?
System savings can vary from region to region, hence rough calculations are provided below for four major geographical zones:
• North Zone: 1000 kWh per 100 LPD of installed capacity. This means that 300LPD system will save roughly 3000 units of electricity in a calendar year.
• South Zone: 1500 kWh per 100 LPD of installed capacity. This means that 300LPD system will save roughly 4500 units of electricity in a calendar year.
• East Zone: 1000 kWh per 100 LPD of installed capacity. This means that 300LPD system will save roughly 3000 units of electricity in a calendar year.
• West Zone: 1250 kWh per 100 LPD of installed capacity. This means that 300LPD system will save roughly 3750 units of electricity in a calendar year.
This can amount to significant monetary savings. Assuming electricity tariff of Rs. 10 / kWh, the savings can be as high as Rs. 10,000 / year / 100LPD. This means the return on investment can be as low as 2 years. For further details, refer to the schedule of benefits document.
What size of system is sufficient for me?
For a house with one bathroom and 1 to 2 members, 100 LPD capacity system should be sufficient. For a 4-6 member house, a 300LPD system is recommended. For more numbers of bathrooms, the capacity will increase accordingly due to pipe losses & more number of family members. Generally the capacity is decided based on hot water required in mornings for bathing. If the usage is in evening & at other times also, the capacity is decided accordingly. Some useful thumb rules for estimating the hot water requirement as per MNRE are given below:
Application Typical requirement of hot water at 60C in per person per day
Household bathing using buckets 5-20 litres per bath
Household bathing using shower with mixing tap 20-30 litres for regular 10-15 min bath
Shaving with running tap 7-10 litres
Bathing in bath tub 50-75 litres per bath
Wash basin with mixing tap (Hand wash, brushing of teeth wtc.) 3-5 litres
Kitchen washing 2-3 litres
Dishwasher 40-50 litres per cycle
What are indicative maintenance costs for the SWH system?
Solar water heating system does not need significant maintenance requirements. Leakages in the plumbing system (if any) could be easily repaired by common plumbers. In case quality of water is hard, scale deposition in the tubes/collectors may result over the years. This may require de-scaling with acids by authorised partners. Broken glass/tubes can also be replaced by our partners easily at minimal costs.
What are standard warrantees applicable on the product and the expected lifespan of the system?
Solar water heating system is warranted for 5 years & 10 years for any manufacturing. However lifetime generally depends on quality of water and hardness at site.
How do solar panels actually work?
Solar panels are made of highly excitable, conductive materials. When the sun’s rays hit the solar panels, the reaction creates direct current (DC) electricity. Since most homes and businesses use alternating current (AC) electricity, your solar-generated DC energy will pass through an inverter to become AC electricity. Then it flows through your property’s wiring and behaves just like the power you’ve been using your whole life.
Will my solar panels generate electricity during cloudy, rainy, or snowy days? What about at night?
Your solar panels don’t need sunshine, per se, to generate electricity as much as they need direct, unobstructed access to the sun’s UV rays.
Similar to how your skin still tans when it’s overcast outside, your solar panels will still generate electricity during cloudy, rainy, or snowy days — they just won’t produce as much energy as they do during clear days.
Solar panels do not generate electricity at night since the sun’s not out. This is when staying connected to the power grid comes in handy as you’ll still have electricity to Netflix and chill.
Do I have to go off the grid when I switch to solar energy?
In reality, you probably won’t want to go off grid. The practice is known as “islanding”, or when you connect your solar array to batteries so you’ll be able to power your home or business entirely on solar energy instead of using the utility company for power.
The thing is, this practice is incredibly expensive and inefficient for most people.
Batteries are not only expensive, they’re not as technically developed as solar panels (read: they clunk up the operation). They also need to be maintained and replaced routinely.
Most solar adopters choose to stay on the grid out of convenience and money-saving.
When you stay connected to the grid, you’ll be able to generate credits with the electric company to lower the price of your bills.
This practice is known as net metering.
What is net metering?
You know how you have an electric meter on your property to record how much energy your home or business uses every month?
When you switch to solar energy, you’ll have an electric meter that works both ways:
• It will show the utility company how much energy you consume when your solar panels aren’t generating electricity (like at night)

• It will show how much energy your solar panels generated during the day.

Your solar panels will produce a lot of energy during the day when the sun’s the strongest. You most likely won’t use all this solar-generated power. Your excess solar energy will feed back to the grid and help supply power for the utility company.
Your utility company will pay for your solar-generated electricity by giving you credits to lower your monthly electricity bill.
So at the end of the month, you’ll only pay for the net amount of electricity.

How much will I really save on my electricity bills every month?
That depends on how much electricity your home or business uses, where you live, the rate your utility company charges for electricity, and several other factors.
Most solar providers aim to offset 70–90% of your monthly electricity bill, so that’s a good place to start your calculations.
How will switching to solar energy help me budget better?
Right now you don’t have any control over the electricity rate your utility company charges. And trends show that electricity rates will continue to rise.
When you install solar panels on your property, you’ll be generating more electricity than you use from the utility company at the price of free.
Then you’ll also generate more than enough to sell back to the utility company as credits to further lower your monthly bills. No more surprise electricity bills to tank your budget again.
How soon will I notice a difference in my electricity bills after switching to solar energy?
Your solar panels will start generating usable energy for your property the day they’re installed. Depending on when you receive your electric bill, you could start noticing lower bills the very first month.
What is the best option for installing solar panels with my budget?
If you happen to have a home or business improvement fund, owning your own solar array is the way to go. The price of installation is low,
While you can definitely pay for your solar installation up front, most home and business owners don’t have that kind of cash sitting around.
Go with a solar loan and you’ll be able to finance your own solar system and own it by making monthly payments over time. You’ll enjoy all the benefits of solar energy.
Do solar panels only work in sunny?
Your solar array will still work when it’s cloudy outside because ambient light and UV light still make it through to your solar panels to generate electricity.
Your solar array may not be as effective during an overcast day as it is during a bright day without clouds, but it will still power your home or business.
Are solar panels difficult to maintain?
Solar panels are easier to maintain than your property’s HVAC, appliances, and maybe even your cell phone. That’s because solar panels have zero moving parts to break.
The most you’ll have to do to maintain your solar panels is make sure they’re free of dust, pollen, leaves, and other debris. Whatever’s obstructing your panels will make for less efficient energy production.
You’ll also need to trim branches that may get in the way of your solar panels and dust off heavy snow. That’s not so hard, right?
Will I ever need to replace my solar panels?
Reputable solar providers now offer solar panels with manufacturer’s warranties that last between 20–30 years.
Since solar panels are so easy to maintain and have zero moving parts, they’ll keep generating energy for you home long enough to see a sizable return on your investment.
Will installing solar panels damage my roof?
If anything, solar panels will protect your roof from damage and may even keep your home cooler. Check out all the different solar mounting options you can choose from. Each method aims to do as little damage to your roof as possible.
How long do solar panels take to install? Do you have to rewire my house?
nstalling your solar array depending on the size of your solar array, your mounting choice and your property.
Your solar provider will not have to rewire your house as all the wiring stays exactly the same.
Your new solar system will consist of a few additional parts to your existing electricity system: your solar panels, the inverter, and your new two-way utility meter.
How does solar energy benefit the environment?
Solar power is a renewable resource, which means there’s so much of it freely available we never have to dig for coal or refine other toxic energy sources just to keep the lights on.
What are solar water pumps?
A solar water pump or a solar photovoltaic water pumping system is a system powered by solar energy. It is just like the traditional electric pump with the only exception that it uses solar energy instead of fossil fuel or electricity. It consists of one or more solar panels, also known as solar photovoltaic modules, a motor pump set, electronic controls or a controller device to operate the pump, the required hardware and in some cases, other items like inverters, batteries, etc.
What is the use of solar water pump?
A solar water pump is used for extracting water from ponds, rivers, bore wells or other sources of water which are then used to meet the water requirements for irrigation, community water supply, livestock and other purposes.
How does solar water pump work?
As mentioned earlier, it works like any other pump set with the only difference being the solar energy used instead of non-renewable energy for its operation. When sunlight falls on the solar panels it produces direct current (DC) which then feeds the motor to pump out the water. However, in the case where the motor requires an alternating current (AC), the DC produced by solar panels is converted to AC using an inverter.
How is solar water pump more useful than conventional electric pumps?
The advantages of solar water pumps over conventional electric pumps are given below:
• Solar water pumps do not require any fuel or electricity to operate. Once installed, solar water pumps do not incur the recurring costs of electricity or fuel.
• Does not get affected by power cuts, low voltage, single phase problems or the motor burning.
• Can be installed in remote areas where electricity is unavailable or diesel is difficult to procure.
• Incurs low maintenance costs as solar water pumps have fewer moving parts as compared to a diesel-powered pump and thus, fewer chances of wear and tear.
• No lubricants are required for operation and hence no chances of water/soil contamination due to the lubricants.
• Easy to operate
What are the different types of solar water pumps?
There are several different types of solar-powered pumps depending on how they have been classified. But primarily there are four types of solar water pumps–submersible pumps and surface pumps, direct current (DC) pumps and alternate current (AC) pumps.
Submersible pump: As the name suggests, a submersible pump is located deep below the ground level and remains submerged under water. The suction head of the submersible pump is beyond a depth of 10 metres. The installation of these pumps is done by digging a bore well, which leads to an increase in its installation and maintenance cost.
Surface pump: The surface pumps remains out of water and in the open. They are installed where the water table is within a depth of 10 metres. As they need to be on the surface, these pumps are easier to install and maintain. They are, however, not apt for deep water table.
DC pump: This pump runs on a motor which operates on direct current, therefore no battery or inverter is needed in this type of pump.
AC pump: The motor of this pump operates on alternating current, which means the direct current produced by the solar panels gets converted to AC using the inverter. The conversion from DC to AC leads to loss of power from generation and consumption.
Are there any criteria for selecting where to install the solar water pump sets?
Yes, there are certain criteria for selecting the location for both the solar panels and the pump. In the case of the solar panels, they should be installed in an area which is shade free and has no dust or dirt, has a low incidence of bird droppings and which can provide space for unrestricted tracking movement (keeping the orientation of the solar panels in the direction of maximum solar irradiation). Also, the surface where the panels are mounted should be even. Panels should be easily accessible for cleaning and should be as close as possible to the pump and water source.
The pumps should be located close to the solar panels but within the area to be irrigated. The suction lift for the pump should be low. If there are multiple water sources, the source with the highest water table should be chosen for placing the pump.
How much area can a system irrigate?
Generally, it is said that a 2 HP pump can cater to about two acres of land and a 7.5 HP is said to cater to 10 acres of land, but this data vary depending on the groundwater levels and the type of irrigation required for a particular crop.
Does solar water pump work during cloudy and foggy days?
No. Lack of sunlight affects the working of solar water pumps. On such days, however, a hybrid power supply can be given to the pump. The pump can be connected to the state electricity grid or a diesel generator set after making proper adjustments in the controller. But such an arrangement should be made only after consulting the manufacturer of the solar water pump.
Can hail storm or lighting lead to the damage of the panels? What precautions should be taken during cyclones/storms to save the panels?
The modern day solar panels have adequate safety features and are very unlikely to be damaged by a hail storm. However, in rare cases, a direct lightning strike might cause considerable damage to the solar panels. But the risk of a lightning strike can be mitigated by the integration of an external lightning protection system with the solar array.
During a storm or a cyclone, the panel gets damaged only if the surface on which it is mounted collapses. In areas prone to cyclones and storms, special consideration should be given to building strong foundations for the installation of a fixed panel. Also, as a precaution during storms or cyclones, the array should be kept horizontally at 180 degrees so that minimum resistance is offered to the wind.
What maintenance is required for a solar powered pump? Does the performance of the solar water pumps get affected over the years of use?
The system needs very minimal maintenance which includes cleaning of the panels on a regular basis. Cleaning maintains the efficiency of the panel without which the panel’s surface gets reduced exposure to irradiation from the dust and dirt on it.
In comparison to diesel pumps, solar water pumps have a significantly longer life expectancy and continue to produce electricity for even longer than 25 years.